Research paper on antimicrobial activity of garlic

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Road, Tumkur, Karnataka, India. This study focuses the significant antibacterial activity of Garlic Allium sativum Linn. Zones of inhibition of different treatment groups were measured by agar-well-diffusion assay and compared with control.

Statistical comparison of sole extract and streptomycin synergism with streptomycin control had proved it significant. Since ancient time, naturally occurring plants have played an important role in the discovery of new therapeutic agents. Therefore, newer herbal antibacterial compounds from plants and their semisynthetic derivatives to overcome the resistance are under investigation. Garlic Allium sativum Linn. Its therapeutic uses include beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, antibiotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hormone-like effects.

Streptomycin was widely used for more than four decades, which is still effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

This study reveals better efficacy of garlic extract and its streptomycin synergism than streptomycin on resistant strains. To each tube was added 1. The last tube showing inhibition of the organism in the dilution series indicated the initial sensitivity of the strain in micrograms of the antibiotic. The second tube showing growth in dilution series was selected for preparing broth dilutions for the second exposure to streptomycin dilution series.

To increase the resistance of the strain to the particular antibiotic, the procedure described above was repeated. Fresh garlic Allium sativum L. The bulbs were peeled, weighed gm and cleaned. The homogenized mixture was filtered through sterile cheesecloth.

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Each culture was swabbed on the surface of sterile nutrient agar plate in duplicate. In each agar plate of both sets, five wells were prepared with the help of sterilized cork borer of 10 mm diameter.

Every plate used according to the aforementioned procedure was performed in triplicate for statistical average.

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Mean zones of inhibition of different treatment groups were measured by agar-well-diffusion assay and compared with the control. Inhibition of resistant bacteria due to sole garlic extract and synergism of same concentration of streptomycin in garlic extract of different strengths in the presence of streptomycin control.

research paper on antimicrobial activity of garlic

Inhibition of resistant bacteria due to sole garlic extract and synergism of different concentration of streptomycin in garlic extract of same strength in presence of streptomycin control. The concentration of streptomycin alone and in G1, G2, G3, etc. The concentration of garlic extract used alone and with S1, S2, S3, etc. The findings of this study reveal the distinct antibacterial profile of Allium sativum Linn.If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password.

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If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Search for more papers by this author. The antimicrobial effects of garlic, ginger, carrot and turmeric pastes against Escherichia coli OH7 in laboratory buffer and model food system were investigated.

All samples were inoculated with a three strain cocktail of overnight cultures of E. Commercial ginger paste and fresh garlic paste showed the strongest antimicrobial activity with complete inactivation of E. Fresh garlic paste showed antimicrobial activity only in BPW 1. These results indicate that the antimicrobial activity of these pastes is decreased in ground beef and laboratory buffer.

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Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

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research paper on antimicrobial activity of garlic

Antimicrobial activity of turmeric extract and its potential use in food industry. Plant extracts as antimicrobials in food products.Antimicrobial resistance has been a global concern. Currently, interest has been focused on exploring antimicrobial properties of plants and herbs. One such botanical is Allium sativum garlic. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of fresh juice of garlic. Varying concentrations of fresh garlic juice FGJ were tested for their antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara, using well diffusion method.

Sensitivity pattern of the conventional antimicrobials against common pathogenic bacteria was tested using disc diffusion method. Further studies are needed to find out the efficacy, safety, and kinetic data of its active ingredients.

Plants as a source of medicinal compound have continued to play a vital role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. One such botanical is garlic. Garlic Allium sativum L. The bulb and cloves of the garlic are the most commonly used parts of the plants for medicinal purpose. It has a typical pungent odor, and antibacterial activity depends on the sulfur-containing compounds, the major one being allicin, which is produced by enzymatic alliin lyase hydrolysis of allicin after cutting and crushing of the cloves.

Recent researches have focused on four main areas: Heart disease, cancer, infectious disease, and antioxidant effects. Indeed, garlic is found to have antihypertensive,[ 34 ] antioxidant,[ 5 ] antiplatelet,[ 6 ] antitumor,[ 78 ] and lipid-lowering actions. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of fresh garlic juice FGJ using in vitro techniques, against common pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coliProteus mirabilisKlebsiella pneumoniaePseudomonas aeruginosaand Staphylococcus aureus.

Fresh garlic was purchased from local market. Garlic bulbs were peeled, weighed g, and cleaned. Clean cloves were crushed in sterile mortar and pestle and then the mixture was filtered through a sterile cheese cloth. Every week, FGJ was prepared. Ten grams of raw garlic yielded 4 ml of juice i.

Twenty-five samples each of E. A nichrome inoculating loop was used to inoculate the infective material on nutrient agar. The inoculum was spread into four quadrants of the nutrient agar plate with the help of a nichrome inoculation loop. The loop was sterilized between each successive quadrant streak.

The purpose of this technique was to dilute the inoculum sufficiently on the surface of agar medium so that well-defined colonies of bacteria can be obtained. The isolated colonies were sub-cultured individually to obtain pure culture isolates. The pure colonies thus obtained were picked up for confirmatory biochemical tests. Standard biochemical tests were performed and isolated organisms were confirmed. Pure colonies were picked up with the help of a straight wire and emulsified in a test tube containing saline, and the turbidity was matched with 0.

With sterile cotton swab, the test culture was spread evenly over the plate successively in three directions to obtain an even inoculum. The plate was allowed to dry for 3—5 min.Garlic Alliums Sativum and Ginger Zingiber officinale is hardy perennial of Asiatic origin, belonging to the plant family liliaceae.

They are grown in northern Nigeria as medicine for both human and animals. They are primarily used for seasoning and also for its medicinal property. Anti-microbial activities of garlic and ginger were carried out using the following microorganisms: staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes. The media used in culturing them was blood agar. When the organism was at exponential phase of growth, extracts of ginger and garlic were made using decoction method.

The extracts was placed according to the two demarcated division made on the plates. And was allowed for 24hrs of incubation, then after that, observation was made from the plates. From the observation, it was discovered that both microorganism were sensitive, but their degree of sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus is slightly more than that of streptococcus pyogenes after sub culturing. Conclusively, we encourage or advise people seriously to go more in adding this species in of their meal.

This is because; they contain so many active ingredients, which resist the activities of microorganism. Anti microbial substances are materials that have activity against bacteria. There are many plant materials that show anti-microbial activity against bacteria. Example includes garlic and ginger. Garlic and ginger are odourferous plants belonging to a plant family lilacace, with their botanical name Alliums Sativum and Zingiber Officinale respectively.

They are primarily used for seasoning and also for its medicinal property Yamoda, The medicinal potency of garlic and ginger are due to their sulphuric content believed to be responsible for their medicinal property Blocll et al, It also contains volatile sulphur oil, which has a vermifugal action i. Anti microbial substance show major and minor similarities and difficult to distinguish except through the use of sensitivity techniques that will show clearly those slightest differences among those substances.

Anti microbial activities of garlic and ginger could be assayed using the following microorganisms: Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.

This microorganism reacts to the slightest change in their environment, they tend to multiply rapidly in a favourable environment but decline if the environment becomes unfavourable. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive organism, spherical in shapes, oxidize negatively and catalase positive, a non-sporing bacterium that usually occurs in clumps like grape cluster LAN, Cases of fake drugs abound everywhere in our country today especially in the use of antibiotic.

The result has been an increasing level of drug resistance among microorganisms, which were abinitio susceptible to particular antibiotics. Most of these antibiotics have one or more action ingredients, which means that it is easy for microorganism to recognize and destroy or metabolize such active ingredients. However, there are many materials of plant origin that show anti-microbial activity.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF GARLIC AND GINGER EXTRACTS

These materials provide some hope for antibiotic resistance because most of them have many chemical broad sites, which means that it is not easy for microorganism to develop resistance to it easily. Measuring of degree of sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus to garlic and ginger extracts respectively. This project work will be limited only to anti microbial activity of garlic and ginger extracts against staphylococcus aureus.

Respectively, garlic and ginger extracts mixed. The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe after thor Man needs water for various other purposes apart from drinking and body functions. The other purposes includes it It affects millions of people all around the globe especially, in Africa, Asi Click here for more departments.Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases.

Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration.

However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases.

Is garlic antibacterial and antimicrobial?

Dietary factors play a key role in the development of various human diseases. Across cultures, there are many different dietary patterns which are believed to promote human health.

Despite cultural differences, there are some shared characteristics of healthy dietary patterns. Perceiving plant foods as beneficial diet is advised by the folklore of many cultures over centuries. Garlic Allium sativum L. Garlic has played important dietary and medicinal roles throughout the history. Garlic has also played as an important medicine to Sumerian and the ancient Egyptians. In the medieval period, garlic was also played an important role in the treatment of different diseases.

With the onset of Renaissance, special attention was paid in Europe to the health benefits of garlic. Garlic has attracted particular attention of modern medicine because of widespread belief about its effects in maintaining good health.

In some Western countries, the sale of garlic preparations ranks with those of leading prescription drugs. There is appreciable epidemiologic evidence that demonstrates therapeutic and preventive roles for garlic. Several experimental and clinical investigations suggest many favorable effects of garlic and its preparations.

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In this review, a survey on current experimental as well as clinical state of knowledge about the preventive and therapeutic effects of garlic in different diseases is given. Garlic is a bulbous plant; grows up to 1. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown in mild climates Figure. There are different types or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic.

Allicin allyl 2-propenethiosulfinate or diallyl thiosulfinate is the principal bioactive compound present in the aqueous extract of garlic or raw garlic homogenate. When garlic is chopped or crushed, allinase enzyme is activated and produce allicin from alliin present in intact garlic. Other important compounds present in garlic homogenate are 1 -propenyl allyl thiosulfonate, allyl methyl thiosulfonate, E,Z -4,5,9-trithiadodeca- l,6,triene 9- oxide ajoeneand y-L-glutamyl-S-alkyl- L-cysteine.Infections caused by strains with multi-drug resistance are difficult to treat with standard antibiotics.

Garlic is a powerful remedy to protect against infections of many bacteria, fungi and viruses. However, little is known about the potentials of fresh garlic extract FGE to improve the sensitivity of multi-drug resistant strains to antibiotics. In this study, we used the disk diffusion method to investigate the antimicrobial activities of FGE and the combination of antibiotics with FGE, on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSAPseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, to evaluate the interactions between antibiotics and FGE.

Next, antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter of inhibition zones according to performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI, formerly NCCLS. Fresh garlic extract displayed evident inhibition properties against C. Additionally, FGE showed the potential to improve the effect of antibiotics on antibiotic resistant pathogens.

The synergism of fluconazole and itraconazole with FGE on C. The synergism of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone with FGE on P.

The results suggest that FGE can improve the antibiotic sensitivity of these pathogens to some antibiotics. With antibacterial drugs being widely used in clinical settings, many microorganisms, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSAPseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicanshave adapted to synthetic antibiotics and become highly resistant to these drugs over time 1 - 4. Microorganisms with multi-drug resistance now cause thousands of deaths throughout the world each year 13.

Although some of these organisms can live harmlessly in humans and are carried in the nasal passage and on the skin, they can cause fatal infection in hospitals and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices and immunodeficiency are at higher risk of infection than healthy people 56. Furthermore, resistance does make the infection more difficult to treat with standard antibiotics and thus more dangerous 78.

Therefore, the continuing spread of multi-drug resistant strains and the increased abuse of antibiotics highlight the need for alternative agents. Garlic has been found to help prevent many diseases.

research paper on antimicrobial activity of garlic

Numerous modern studies confirm that garlic has definite antibiotic properties and is effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, fungi and viruses 9 In addition, the antimicrobial activities of garlic are linked to the presence of some bioactive compounds Moreover, many studies have demonstrated that garlic can be more effective as a broad-spectrum antibiotic compared with conventional antibiotics.

However, most previous studies have only focused on the antimicrobial activities of garlic and garlic-derived organ sulfur compounds or the difference between garlic or garlic-derived organ sulfur compounds and standard antibiotics, while little is known about the potential of fresh garlic extract FGE to improve the susceptibility of multi-drug resistant strains to conventional antibiotics.

Peeled garlic bulbs g were blended in 50 mL sterile distilled water. The mixture was crushed finely using a juicer. The resulting paste was centrifuged at rmp for 30 minutes and the supernatant was then sterilized by a filter 0.

The final concentration of FGE in aqueous solution was determined to be The FGE was stored in 1. A total of 90 clinical isolates and three control strains were used. All isolates were identified at the strain level using the Vitek 2 automatic system Bio Merieux Company, Marcy l'Etoile, France and showed multiple antibiotic resistances, and had no apparent epidemiological connection.To browse Academia.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. In-vitro antibacterial activity of garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes on food-borne pathogens International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, In-vitro antibacterial activity of garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes on food-borne pathogens.

The organisms are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species and Bacillus cereus. Two different extracts cold water and ethanol were obtained from the garlic bulbs and ginger rhizomes. The results indicated that the different bacteria species demonstrated different levels of sensitivity to the extracts. The cold water extract of the ginger produced maximum activity against Salmonella species The ethanolic extract produced maximum activity against Staphylococcus aureus The extracts of garlic cold water and ethanolic produced the maximum inhibitory effect towards Staphylococcus aureus The cold water extract produced an inhibition of The result revealed that garlic extracts were more effective against the test organisms than ginger extracts.

However both plants can serve as potential inhibitors of food pathogens and can increase the shelf life of foods if properly incorporated. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, ginger, garlic, food-borne pathogens, inhibition.

research paper on antimicrobial activity of garlic

In addition they act as preservatives in many foods; they also have antioxidant [3] and antimicrobial properties [4]. Herbs have also been utilized in human and veterinary medicine [5]. It is a member of the family Zinberaceae and its scientific name is Zingiber officinale [3]. Ginger is thick scaly rhizomes which are aromatic, thick lobed, branched, have a scaly structure and they possess a spicy lemon like scent.

The rhizomes contain both aromatic and pungent components [4]. For centuries, it has been an important ingredient in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines for the treatment of catarrh, rheumatism, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke, constipation and diabetes [6], [7], [8].


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